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Acne vulgaris
A condition involving the oil glands and pores of the skin which is present as blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, tender red bumps or pustules, cysts and blemishes.

Acetyl Carnitine
An agent that boosts skin’s natural energy.

Acetyl Glucosamine
A natural exfoliant with good water binding properties for the skin.

Acid
Anything with a pH lower than 7 is acid-above 7 is alkaline. Water has a pH of 7. Skin has an average pH of 5.5.

Active Ingredient
The active ingredients list is the part of an ingredient label that must adhere to specific regulations mandated by the FDA. Active ingredients must be listed first on an ingredient label with the amount and exact function of each active ingredient is as indicated by the regulations established by the FDA for over-the-counter acne treatments. Active ingredients include such substances as avobenzone and octinoxate which are sunscreen ingredients, hydroquinone which is a skin-lightening agent and benzoyl peroxide and sulfur which are acne medicines.

Age spot
The skin can develop brown patches for many reasons, but the characteristic small ones on the hands, arms, and face are caused by sun damage. They are also called “liver spots”.

Allantoin
(al·lan·to·in) (?-lan´to-in) Is an effective anti-irritant that soothes and hydrates the skin.

Allergic reaction
Is indicated by itching, redness and swelling usually only where the offending substance has touched the skin. Treatment includes: STOP using the product, use Hydrocortisone 1% as directed and see a local dermatologist if your symptoms do not subside.

Algae Extract
Is used as an anti-irritant that soothes the skin.

Aloe barbadensis leaf juice
A hydrating agent with cooling, calming qualities from the aloe vera plant.

Alpha-hydroxy acids
An acidic product used for surface skin exfoliation. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA’s) work by removing the adhesions between cells in the upper layer i.e. the epidermis allowing the epidermal cells to slough off. AHA products include the subcategories of glycolic, malic and citric acids.

Anti-irritant
Any ingredient that reduces certain signs of inflammation, such as swelling, tenderness, pain, itching, or redness.

Anti-oxidants
Any substance that impedes or slows free-radical damage by preventing the oxidative action of molecules. Many vitamins have antioxidant properties, including vitamins A, C, and E. Free-radicals cause cells to break down and impair or destroy their ability to function normally which destroys collagen and other skin components.

Arnica Montana Flower Extract
A naturally occurring botanical known for calming + soothing.

Avobenzone
(av·o·ben·zone) (av”o-ben´zon) Synthetic sunscreen ingredients (also known as Parsol® 1789) that can help protect against a broad-spectrum range of the sun's UVA rays.

Azeleic acid
(az·e·la·ic ac·id) (az”?-la´ik) A synthetic agent that has soothing effects on the skin.

Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi Leaf Extract
(Arc·to·staph·y·los) (ahrk”to-staf´?-los) A skin-brightening agent taken from the bearberry plant.

Bentonite
(ben·ton·ite) (ben´ton-it) A white, moisture-absorbing clay that softens the skin and helps exfoliate and remove oils and impurities from the skin.

Benzoyl peroxide
An ingredient which meets the guidelines established by FDA for over-the-counter acne treatments. It is a prescription medicine that can also be sold over the counter. (It is OTC from 2.5- 10%).

Beta hydroxy acids
Also called salicylic acid, are named from the molecular composition of the acid. This acid can penetrate to the pores and helps clear the pores through exfoliation. (At .5- 2% Sal Acid is OTC for Acne).

Blackheads
A plugged pore that is opened at the skin's surface and it gets its dark color from both melanin and oxidation (not from dirt).

Botanicals
Plant derived ingredients that are added to cosmetic products for their unique properties.

Broad-spectrum sunscreen
A sunscreen that screens both UVA and UVB rays. UVA rays are longer in wavelength and penetrate more deeply than UVB rays. UVA wavelengths are result in skin aging changes, like, wrinkling, brown spots, and skin coarsening. UVB is also know as the burning ray because it is the primary cause of sunburns. Both rays contribute to the formation of skin cancer.

Caffiene
Ingredient used to be an anti-irritant that has skin soothing qualities.

Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract
(Ca·mel·lia) (k?-mel´e-?) An ancient antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate also see it referred to as EGCG that fights the aging action of free radicals on the skin. It is commonly called Green Tea.

Ceramides
Naturally occurring skin lipids (fats) that are major structural components of the skin's outer structure and are necessary for the lipid barrier that increases the skin's water-retention capacity.

Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract
A botanical that has anti-irritant, soothing, and antioxidant properties. It also has a pleasant natural fragrance.

Chemical Exfoliation
Alpha and beta hydroxy acids (glycolic acid, salicylic acid) blended into a cream or gel is used to exfoliate as are retinol and glucosamine. These products remove dead cells over time and encourage cell turnover by dissolving the "glue" holding cells together. This will lead to a smoother, more radiant and even-toned complexion. These products can impair the lipid barrier and cause irritation if used aggressively.

Cholesterol
Is used to help repair the skin’s lipid barrier.

Collagen
A component of the dermis layer of the skin that gives its support and structure. Collagen is naturally broken down by an enzyme called collagenase and regenerates itself on a regular basis. Sun exposure and age can cause this rate of breakdown to exceed the rate of renewal. A loss of collagen will appear on the skin as wrinkles and sagging.

[COLLAGEN] Peptides
Peptides are powerful ingredients and come in multiple varieties for different functions. We use peptides in Anti-Age treat to help stimulate natural collagen production. Collagen is composed of tiny protein fragments called peptides. When collagen is naturally damaged by UV light or free radicals, these protein fragments are exposed. The presence of these small exposed fragments sends a signal to the skin cells (called fibroblasts) that collagen is breaking down and more collagen needs to be produced to replenish the supply. When the skin cells (fibroblasts) notice the peptides in Anti-Age Treat they get the same message- causing these skin cells (fibroblasts) to produce more collagen!

Comedone
When dead skin cells are trapped and compacted by oil to clog pores. Open comedone is a “blackhead” and closed comedone is a white head.

Creatine
(cre·a·tine) (kre´?-tin) Boosts skin’s natural energy.

Dimethicone
(di·meth·i·cone) (di-meth´i-kon) An OTC ingredient used as a skin protectant agent that helps repair the skin barrier and leaves a smooth silky feel on the skin.

Elastin or Elastic Fibers
Found in the dermis of the skin to give it flexibility. Sun damage and free radicals can bresk down elastin in skin. Elastin can be derived from both plant and animal sources and is used in cosmetics as a cosmetic ingredient with a good water-binding agent. Then natural loss of elastin appears on the skin as sagging and wrinkles.

Epidermis
Skin’s outer layer which is 8-10 cell layers in thickness and which naturally renews itself in about 28 days in a young person. With advancing age, the epidermal renewal process increases and can take as long as 50 days in a 50 year old.

Exfoliation
The process by which scrubs, retinols, and chemical peels increase the regular removal of dead skin cells from the epidermis, revealing fresher skin. It occurs naturally, but this process gets sluggish over time.

Free-Radicals/damage
A free radical is a highly charged, unpaired electron that travels through the body in search of an electron to bind with causing significant tissue damage. Degenerative conditions in the skin, such as, wrinkles and skin discolorations, are caused primarily by free-radical damage. Free-radical damage is triggered by sunlight, cigarette smoke, herbicides, pesticides, pollution, and solvents. Antioxidants are a way to reduce and potentially neutralize the rampage of free-radical damage

Glycolic acid
(Are thyaluronate) Is a hydrating agent which holds up to 1,000 times it weight in moisture and thereby creating a plumping effect on the skin.

Hydrocortisone 1%
Is an OTC ingredient which meets the guidelines established by FDA as an over-the-counter active to temporarily relieve the itching associated with minor skin irritations and inflammation.

hydroquinone
(hy·dro·quin·one) (hi”dro-kwi-non´) Is the only FDA approved OTC active ingredient which lightens brown spots and discolorations caused by sun exposure and hormones. Hydroquinone acts by blocking the enzyme tyrosinase involved in pigment production. It is safe for all skin types. Occasionally it can cause mild skin irritation and allergy.

Hyperpigmentation
Increased abnormal melanin pigmentation (color) in the skin. Freckles and “age spots” are examples.

Hypopigmentation
Decreased melanin pigmentation (color) in the skin causing light patches.

Kaolin
Natural clay mineral (silicate of aluminum) that is used in cosmetics and skincare products for its oil absorbent properties.

kojic acid
This is a by-product from the fermentation process of malting rice and is effective for brightening the skin.

Lactic Acid
An alpha hydroxy acid derived from milk that causes exfoliation of epidermal skin cells by dissolving the material that holds these skin cells together allowing them to gently slough off.

Linoleic acid
(lin·o·lic acid) (lin-o´lik) Is an unsaturated fatty acid that helps to restore the lipid barrier and may help reduce oil production by sebaceous glands.

Melanin
(mel·a·nin) (mel´?-nin) Color granules found in melanocytes (the pigment producing skin cells), which produce the general color of our skin and freckles.

Melaslow
(formally called Citrus Unshiu Peel Extract from Japan) Is a plant extract that helps improve clarity and texture of complexion and helps prevent the return of pigmentation.

Microsponge technology
Allows for a slow, release of product over time.

Microdermabrasion
An intensive treatment to remove dead skin cells by friction and sometimes by vacuum suction.

Mimosa Tenuiflora Bark Extract
An ingredient that helps maintain natural collagen. It comes from the bark of the Mimosa tree.

Astrocaryum Murumuru Seed Butter
Is oil derived from the nut of a Palm tree usually found in the Brazilian Rain forest. It helps repair the lipid barrier and also may help to reduce the appearance of puffiness under the eyes.

Niacinamide
A form of niacin or B-3 that may help reduce the appearance of redness and irritation of the skin.

Non-acnegenic
Refers to products that have been tested and found to not clog pores and promote acne.

Octinoxate
(oc·tin·ox·ate) (ok-tin´ok-sat) An ingredient which meets the guidelines established by FDA for over-the-counter UVB light absorbing sunscreen ingredient.

Over-the-counter (OTC) ingredients
are determined by the FDA drug monograph as capable of changing the structure and function of the skin to treat or address a skin problem. Products formulated with OTC ingredients are available to consumers without a prescription. There are more than 80 therapeutic categories of OTC drugs to treat a variety of issues including skin problems like acne and dandruff to medical conditions like obesity and headaches. For more information go to http://www.fda.gov/cder/Offices/OTC/default.htm.

Oxybenzone
see: Sunscreen.

Octyl Methoxycinnamate
(see Sunscreen) This is the old cosmetic name for Octinoxate.

Panthenol
A pro-vitamin B derivative that is an excellent moisturizing ingredient for the skin and hair.

Peptides
Short chains of amino acids that make up proteins and may affect skin functions, such as, collagen production.

Pore
Is the passageway from the surface of the skin to the base of a hair follicle. Oil producing sebaceous glands are attached to the follicle. Oil (sebum) is released by these glands and travels up the pore to reach and coat the surface of the skin.

Resveratrol
Powerful anti-oxidant from the skin of grapes.

Retinol
Is a common name for a form of vitamin A.

Rosacea
(ro·sa·cea) (ro-za´she-?) Is a flush/blush reaction of the face often genetically based, seen primarily in fair skinned Caucasians and is triggered by heat, sunlight, alcohol and stress. Rosacea is characterized by central facial redness and is often accompanied by acne. There are no specific FDA approved OTC meds approved to treat rosacea. While we can provide products to reduce the associated acne, sensitivity, and redness, someone with rosacea should see a dermatologist for specific prescription treatments.

Salicylic acid
(sal·i·cyl·ate) (sal”i-sil´at, s?-lis´?-lat) also called a beta hydroxyl acid is an FDA approved OTC medicine, in concentrations ranging from .5-2.0%, for the treatment of acne. Salicylic acid works by unplugging blocked pores.

Sea whip Extract
Is a cosmetic skin care ingredient from coral found off of the Bahamian coast and used for its anti-irritant properties.

Sebum
is the body’s natural oil composed of fatty acids, and wax created by sebaceous glands which are found at the base of hair follicles. Sebum travels from the gland through the pore to reach and lubricate the skin’s surface.

Siegesbeckia Glabrescens Extract
A natural ingredient from a small shrub that works to prevent collagen breakdown.

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)
Is a moisturizer that helps repair the lipid barrier.

Sodium Hyaluronate
see: Hyaluronic acid.

Sodium RNA
Is an ingredient that helps to repair and renew the skin.

Stratum Corneum
Is the top dead layer of skin just above the epidermis that acts as a physical barrier, like shingles on a roof, to keep toxins from environment out.

Sulfur
3-10% sulfur is an ingredient which meets the guidelines established by FDA for over-the-counter (OTC) acne medicated ingredient for the treatment oft acne. This naturally occurring and effective yet gentle medicine fights acne by working to clean pores, absorb excess skin oils and soothe inflammation associated with acne blemishes.

Sunscreens
consist FDA approved active UV adsorbing ingredients that help provide protection from sunburn and sun damage. Sunscreen agents provide either physical or chemical adsorption of UV light. In the UV light spectrum there are 2 wavelengths that affect skin: UVA and UVB. The SPF or sunburn protection factor refers only to a products ability to screen UVB light. The higher the SPF number on the label, the greater the product’s ability to absorb UVB light. Ingredients such as Zinc Oxide, Avobenzone (Parsol® 1789) and Mexoryl®SX are used to screen the UVA “aging” rays that cause photo-damage. Sunscreen should not be used to prolong time spent in the sun. Even with a sunscreen, you are not going to prevent all the possible damage from the sun. For best protection, sunscreens must be applied liberally and often.

Titanium dioxide
This mineral is highly refined to remove toxic impurities and is used both as a sunscreen and make-up ingredient.

UVA light
UVA is a long wavelength (320-400nm) of ultraviolet light that affects both the epidermis and dermis. UVA causes skin tanning, but also the unwanted concerns of brown spot formation and skin wrinkling. UVA rays may play an important role in melanoma causation.

UVB light
UVB is a wavelength (290-320nm) of ultraviolet light that affects primarily the epidermis as a sun burn, sun tan and has been to skin cancer formation and skin aging changes.

The SPF
(sunburn protection factor) Is the number on a sunscreen that refers only to a product’s effectiveness to guard against UVB exposure. There is new SPF-like rating system for UVA protection in the United States using stars.

Vitamin C
Is an antioxidant which helps protect skin against photodamage.

Vitamin E
A naturally occurring lipid-soluble vitamin that is an antioxidant.

Whiteheads
Clogged pores that are covered by the surface of the skin, trapping the comedone beneath the skin.

Yeast Extract
A natural cosmetic ingredient that helps to brighten the skin for a more even complexion.

Zinc Oxide
A physical blocking sunscreen that meets the guidelines established by FDA for a UVA and UVB sunscreen ingredient. This mineral is highly refined to remove toxic impurities and is used for thickening, whitening and lubricating agent in cosmetics, as well as, a sunscreen ingredient.

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